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SPECIAL FEATURE
by Barbara Schmidt

Roster of Deceased Mark Twain
Biographers, Editors and Scholars

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Allen, Jerry (October 12, 1905 Benton, Wisconsin -- October 11, 1994, Norwalk, Connecticut). Female author and journalist. Worked for the New York Herald Tribune, Reuters and the National Broadcasting Company in New York, London and Paris in the 1930s. Publications include Adventures of Mark Twain (1954).

Anderson, Andrew Frederick (Oct. 6, 1926, Wenatchee, Washington -- Jan. 7, 1979, Berkeley, California). University of California at Berkeley B.L.S. (1950). Editor of Mark Twain Papers (1964-79). Publications include Mark Twain: The Critical Heritage (editor, 1971), A Pen Warmed Up in Hell (editor, 1972), Mark Twain's Notebooks and Journals. Vol. 1, 1855-1873 (coeditor with Michael B. Frank and Kenneth M. Sanderson, 1975), Mark Twain's Notebooks and Journals. Volume II, 1877-1883 (coeditor with Lin Salamo and Bernard L. Stein, 1979).

Andrews, Kenneth Richmond (May 24, 1916 -- September 4, 2005, Durham, New Hampshire). University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign doctorate (1948). Professional career at Harvard Business School (1948-86). Editor of Harvard Business Review (1979-85). Publications include Nook Farm: Mark Twain's Hartford Circle (1950).

Asselineau, Roger (1915, France -- July 8, 2002, Paris, France). Sorbonne doctorate (1954). Poet and translator. Professional career at Sorbonne. Publications include The Literary Reputation of Mark Twain from 1910 to 1950: A Critical Essay and a Bibliography (1954, 1971).

Baender, Paul Edward (December 1, 1926, Alameda, California -- May 30, 2006, Iowa City, Iowa). University of California at Berkeley doctorate (1956). Professional career at University of Chicago (1956-60), University of Iowa (1960-90). Publications include What is Man? and Other Philosophical Writings (editor, 1973).

Baetzhold, Howard G. (January 1, 1923, Buffalo, New York -- July 7, 2012, Indianapolis, Indiana). University of Wisconsin at Madison doctorate (1953). Professional career at Butler University (1953-88). Publications include Mark Twain and John Bull: The British Connection (1970), The Bible According to Mark Twain: Writings of Heaven, Eden, and the Flood (coeditor with Joseph McCullough, 1995, 96).

Baldanza, Frank (November 17, 1924, Ohio - Jauary 31, 1985, Bowling Green, Ohio). Cornell University doctorate (1954). Professor Bowling Green State University. Publications include Mark Twain: An Introduction and Interpretation (1961).

Baskin, Darryl Benny (March 2, 1937, Alameda, California -- December 19, 1992, Pine City, New York). University of California at Berkeley doctorate (1966). Professional career at Hayward State College, Holy Names College, Stanislaus State College, Windham College, Elmira College (1980-1992), Director of Elmira Center for Mark Twain Studies (1986-1992). Publications include Quarry Farm Papers (editor, 1989-91).

Bradley, Edward Sculley (January 4, 1897, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania -- December 4, 1987, Pennsylvania). University of Pennsylvania graduate (1919). Professional career University of Pennsylvania (1920-1968). Publications include Adventures of Huckleberry Finn [Norton Critical Edition] (editor, 1961, 1977).

Bellamy, Gladys Carmen (March 9, 1901, Willow City, Gillespie County, Texas -- August 2, 1973, Mexico City, Mexico). University of Oklahoma at Norman doctorate (1945) being the first woman to receive a PhD. in English from that school. Professional career at Cheyenne (Oklahoma) High School, North Texas State College (1943-44), University of Oklahoma (1944-49), Southwestern State College in Oklahoma (1949-67). Publications include Mark Twain As a Literary Artist (1950).

Benson, Ivan Benjamin (December 15, 1896, Rimshult, Sweden -- January 29, 1982, Thousand Oaks, California). University of Southern California doctorate (1937). Professional career at University of Kansas, University of Southern California, University of Maryland. Taught University of California courses overseas in World War II to armed forces in Japan and Korea. Charter member of the International Mark Twain Society. Publications include Mark Twain's Western Years (1938).

Blair, John Walter (April 21, 1900, Spokane, Washington -- June 29, 1992, Chicago, Illinois). University of Chicago doctorate (1931). Professional career at University of Chicago (1929-68). Publications include Mark Twain & Huck Finn (1960), The Art of Huckleberry Finn (coeditor with Hamlin Hill, 1962), Hannibal, Huck & Tom (editor, 1969), Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (coeditor with Victor Fischer, 1985, 1988).

Blanck, Jacob Nathaniel (November 10, 1906, Boston, Massachusetts -- December 23, 1974, Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts). Attended Boston public schools. Bibliographer and editor. Professional career at Publishers Weekly and Antiquarian Bookman (1936-52), Library of Congress (1939-41). Publications include Bibliography of American Literature (editor, 1943-74); first six volumes of this multi-volume set established the standard for Mark Twain descriptive bibliography.

Branch, Edgar Marquess (March 21, 1913, Chicago, Illinois -- August 14, 2006, Oxford, Ohio). University of Iowa doctorate (1941). Professional career at Miami University at Oxford, Ohio (1941-78). Publications include Mark Twain's Letters in the Muscatine Journal (editor, 1942), The Literary Apprenticeship of Mark Twain (1950), Clemens of the Call; Mark Twain in San Francisco (editor, 1969), Early Tales and Sketches. Volume 1, 1851-1864 (coeditor with Robert H. Hirst, 1979), Early Tales & Sketches : Vol. 2, 1864-1865 (coeditor with Robert H. Hirst, 1981), Men Call Me Lucky: Mark Twain and the Pennsylvania (1985), Roughing It (coeditor, 1993),

Brashear, Minnie May (August 17, 1874, Adair County, Missouri -- April 17, 1963, Kirksville, Missouri). University of North Carolina doctorate (1930). Professional career at University of Missouri (1919-44). Publications include Mark Twain, Son of Missouri (1934), The Art, Humor, and Humanity of Mark Twain (coeditor with Robert M. Rodney, 1959), The Birds and Beasts of Mark Twain (coeditor with Robert M. Rodney, 1966).

Brodwin, Stanley L. (March 31, 1930 -- 1995). Columbia University doctorate (1967). Prolific contributor to Mark Twain literary publications. Professional career at Hofstra University. Contributions include essays in Critical Essays on Mark Twain, 1910-1980 (1982), The Mythologizing of Mark Twain (1984), One Hundred Years of Huckleberry Finn (1985), The Mark Twain Encyclopedia (1993), Cambridge Companion to Mark Twain (1995).

Brooks, Van Wyck (February 16, 1886, Plainfield, New Jersey -- May 2, 1963, Bridgewater, Connecticut). Harvard graduate 1908. Literary critic and author. Pulitzer Prize winner in 1937 for The Flowering of New England (1936). Publications include The Ordeal of Mark Twain (1920).

Browne, Ray Broadus (January 15, 1922, Millport, Alabama -- October 22, 2009, Bowling Green, Ohio). University of California at Los Angeles doctorate (1956). Professional career at University of Nebraska (1947-50), University of Maryland (1956-60), Purdue (1960-67), Bowling Green University (1967-92). Publications include Mark Twain's Quarrel with Heaven (1970).

Brownell, George Hiram (May 17, 1875, Janesville, Wisconsin -- June 1, 1950, Fort Lauderdale, Florida). University of Wisconsin graduate (1904). Founded the Mark Twain Society of Chicago (1935) and Mark Twain Association of America (1941). Secretary and Director of Mark Twain Research Foundation. Editor of the Twainian (1939-50).

Budd, Louis John (August 26, 1921, St. Louis, Missouri -- December 20, 2010, Patagonia, Arizona). University of Wisconsin doctorate (1949). Professional career at Duke University (1952-91). Co-founder of the Mark Twain Circle (1986). Publications include Mark Twain: Social Philosopher (1962), Our Mark Twain: The Making of His Public Personality (1983), Critical Essays on Mark Twain, 1867-1910 (1982), Critical Essays on Mark Twain, 1910-1980 (1983), Mark Twain: Collected Tales, Sketches, Speeches, and Essays (2 vols., 1992), Mark Twain: The Contemporary Reviews (1999), A Companion to Mark Twain (coauthor with Peter Messent, 2006).

Canby, Henry Seidel (September 6, 1878, Wilmington, Delaware -- April 5, 1961, Ossining, New York). Yale graduate 1899. Professional career at Yale (1899-1922). Editor of Literary Review of New York Evening Post (1920-24). Editor of the Saturday Review of Literature (1924-36). Chairman of the board of judges for Book of the Month Club (1926-58). Publications include Turn West, Turn East: Mark Twain and Henry James (1951).

Cardwell, Guy A. (November 14, 1905, Savannah, Georgia -- September 29, 2005, Lexington, Massachusetts). Professional career at Washington University in St. Louis (1949-68). Publications include Twins of Genius (1953), The Man Who Was Mark Twain (1991).

Carrington, George C., Jr. (November 27, 1928, Washington, D.C. -- September 16, 1990, Devil's Lake State Park, near Baraboo, Wisconsin). Ohio State University doctorate (1959). Professional career at Northern Illinois University at DeKalb (1967 - 1990). Publications include The Dramatic Unity of Huckleberry Finn (1976).

Clemens, Clara Langdon (June 8, 1874, Elmira, New York -- November 19, 1962, San Diego, California). Educated by private tutors and in a Berlin boarding school (1982-93). Mark Twain's daughter. Publications include Why Be Nervous (1927), My Father: Mark Twain (1931), My Husband: Gabrilowitsch (1938), Awake to a Perfect Day with Christian Science (1956).

Clemens, Cyril Conistan (July 14, 1902, St. Louis, Missouri -- May 16, 1999, Kirkwood, Missouri). Washington University in St. Louis graduate (1928). Distant cousin of Samuel Clemens. Founder of International Mark Twain Society (1925). Launched the Mark Twain Quarterly which later became the Mark Twain Journal (1936-83). Publications include Mark Twain, the Letter Writer (editor, 1932), Mark Twain and Mussolini (1934), Mark Twain Wit and Wisdom (editor, 1935), My Cousin, Mark Twain (1939), Young Sam Clemens (1942), Mark Twain's Jest Book (1963). After his death a special issue of the Mark Twain Journal (Vol. 37, Numbers 1 and 2, Spring, Fall 1999) was devoted to his life and work.

Clemens, William Montgomery (January 16, 1860, Paris Ohio -- November 25, 1931, Ocean Grove, New Jersey). Journalist and author. Publications include Famous Funny Fellows: Brief Biographical Sketches of American Humorists (1882), Mark Twain: His Life and Work -- A Biographical Sketch (1892).

Covici, Pascal, Jr. (September 2, 1930, New York -- February 9, 1997, Dallas, Texas). Harvard doctorate (1957). Professional career at Southern Methodist University (1957-1997). Former president of the Mark Twain Circle. Publications include Mark Twain's Humor: The Image of a World (1962).

Cox, James Melville (August 4, 1925, Independence, Virginia -- January 26, 2012, Independence, Virginia). Indiana University doctorate (1955). Professional career at Dartmouth College. Publications include Mark Twain: The Fate of Humor (1966).

Cummings, Sherwood Preston ( March 5, 1916, New Jersey -- February 3, 2005, Fullerton, California). University of Wisconsin doctorate (1951). Professional career at University of South Dakota, California State University at Fullerton (1963-80). Publications include Mark Twain and Science: Adventures of a Mind (1988).

Dane, George Ezra ( December 21, 1904, Pasadena, California -- October 28, 1941, San Francisco, California). Harvard law school graduate (1928). Associate editor of the Harvard Law Review. Practiced law with McCutchen, Olney, Mannon and Greene in San Francisco until his death. Publications include Letters from the Sandwich Islands (1938), Mark Twain's Travels with Mr. Brown (coeditor with Franklin Walker, 1940).

David, Beverly Rose "Penny" (August 27, 1927, Detroit, Michigan -- November 19, 2013, Green Valley, Arizona). Michigan State University doctorate (1976). Professional career at Western Michigan University (1964-94). Publications include Mark Twain and His Illustrators, Volume 1 (1986); The Oxford Mark Twain - 29-volume set (contributor, 1996); Mark Twain and His Illustrators, Volume 2 (2001).

Davis, Chester L. (April 17, 1903, Revere, Missouri -- December 6, 1987, Perry, Missouri). Patent lawyer. Editor of the Twainian (1950-87).

Day, Arthur Grove (April 29, 1904, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania -- March 26, 1994). Stanford University doctorate (1945). Editor, author, Hawaiian historian. Professional career at University of Hawaii - Manoa (1944-1969). Publications include Mark Twain's Letters from Hawaii (1966).

DeCasseres, Benjamin (April 3, 1873, Pennyslvania -- December 6, 1945). Self-educated newspaper columnist and writer. Proofreader New York Herald (1903-19). Columnist New York American (1934). Publications include When Huck Finn Went Highbrow (1934).

DeVoto, Bernard (January 11, 1897, Ogden, Utah -- November 13, 1955, New York, New York). Graduate of Harvard. Second editor of the Mark Twain Papers (1938-1946). Professional career at Northwestern University (1922-27), Harvard (1929-36), Editor at Harper's Magazine (1935-55). Editor of Saturday Review of Literature (1935-38). Publications include Mark Twain's America (1932), Mark Twain in Eruption (editor, 1940), Mark Twain at Work (1942), The Portable Mark Twain (editor, 1946), Letters From the Earth (editor, 1962).

Dias, Earl J. (March 23, 1916, New Bedford, Massachusetts -- May 27, 2007, Fairhaven, Massachusetts). Boston University graduate. Professional career at Southeastern Massachusetts University. Author, playwright, drama and music critic for New Bedford Standard Times. Publications include Mark Twain’s Letters to the Rogers Family (1970), Mark Twain and Fairhaven (1976), Mark Twain and Henry Huttleston Rogers: An Odd Couple (1984).

Duckett, Margaret (March 11, 1906, South Carolina -- May 16, 1997, Seattle, Washington). Graduate of Winthrop College. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, M.A. (1941). Professional career at University of Washington at Seattle. Publications include Mark Twain and Bret Harte (1964).

Duskis, Henry G. (September 2, 1911, New York -- August 22, 1996, Los Angeles, California). Publications include The Forgotten Writings of Mark Twain (editor, 1963).

Emberson, Frances Guthrie (September 28, 1912, Columbia, Missouri -- September 12, 1995, Tacoma, Washington). University of Missouri doctorate (1932). Professional career at Southwestern College at Winfield, Kansas; Stephens College at Columbia, Missouri; University of Chicago, State Historical Society of Missouri; Tacoma (Washington) School District (1960s). Married Herbert Rockwell Hartley (1946). Publications include Mark Twain's Vocabulary: A General Survey (1935, 1974), A Mark Twain Lexicon (coauthor with Robert Lee Ramsay, 1963).

Emerson, Everett Harvey (February 16, 1925, Malden, Massachusetts -- July 9, 2002, Lenox, Massachusetts). Louisiana State University doctorate (1955). Professional career at University of Massachusetts at Amherst (1965-1983). Co-founder of the Mark Twain Circle (1986). Publications include The Authentic Mark Twain: A Literary Biography of Samuel L. Clemens (1984), Mark Twain: A Literary Life (1999).

English, Thomas Hopkins (December 28, 1895, Dow, Illinois -- January 8, 1992, Atlanta,Georgia). Princeton doctorate (1924). Professional career at University of Wisconsin (1920-21), Yale (1924-25), Princeton University (1923-27 summer schools), Emory University (1925-65). Publications include Mark Twain to Uncle Remus (1953).

Erwin, William "Bill" (December 2, 1914, Honey Grove, Texas -- December 29, 2010, Los Angeles, California). University of Texas graduate (1935). Pasadena Playhouse, MA (1941). Film, stage and television performer. Wrote, produced and starred in one-man play "Twisted Twain" (1997). Performances include the role of Harvey Wilks in Huckleberry Finn (1975).

Fatout, Paul (March 4, 1897, Indianapolis, Indiana -- October 26, 1982, Lafayette, Indiana). Professional career at Purdue University (1927-65). Publications include Mark Twain on the Lecture Circuit (1960), Mark Twain in Virginia City (1964), Mark Twain Speaking (1976), Mark Twain Speaks for Himself (1978).

Ferguson, John DeLancey (November 13, 1888, Scottsville, New York -- August 12, 1966, Salisbury, Connecticut). Columbia University doctorate (1916). Professional career at Brooklyn College (1944-54). Publications include Mark Twain: Man and Legend (1943).

Fiedler, Leslie Aaron (March 8, 1917, Newark, New Jersey -- Buffalo, New York, January 29, 2003). University of Wisconsin at Madison doctorate (1941). Professional career at University of Montana at Missoula (1941-63), State University of New York at Buffalo (1964-2003). Publications include Love and Death in the American Novel (1960, 1973, 1984, 1992).

Fischer, Henry William (January 10, 1856, Neuss, Germany -- June 6, 1932, Miami, Florida). Author and journalist often identified as Henry W. Fisher. Professional career as foreign correspondent for New York Sun, New York World, London Times; directed American news bureaus in London, Berlin, Paris, Vienna, and Stockholm. Publications include Abroad with Mark Twain and Eugene Field (contributor with Merle de Vore Johnson, 1922).

Foner, Philip Sheldon (December 14, 1910, New York, New York -- December 13, 1994, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania). Columbia University doctorate (1941). Book editor and writer on the labor movement. Returned to academia in the 1960s. Professional career at Lincoln University of Pennsylvania (1967-79). Publications include Mark Twain: Social Critic (1958, 1966).

Frear, Walter Francis (October 29, 1863, Grass Valley, California -- January 2, 1948, Honolulu, Hawaii). Yale law school graduate (1890). Lawyer and judge. Third territorial governor of Hawaii (1907-13). Publications include Mark Twain and Hawaii (1947).

Ganzel, Dewey Alvin, Jr. (July 5, 1927, New Albion, Nebraska -- January 31, 2011, Oberlin, Ohio). University of Chicago doctorate (1958). Professional career at Oberlin College (1958-97). Publications include Mark Twain Abroad (1968).

Gauthier-Villars, Henry (August 8, 1859, Essone, France --January 12, 1931, Paris, France). College Stanislas, Paris law degree. Publisher and author. Publications include French language Mark Twain (1884).

Geismar, Maxwell David (August 1, 1909, New York, New York -- July 1979, Harrison, New York). Columbia University master's degree (1932). Critic and literary historian. Taught at Sarah Lawrence College (1933-45). Contributing editor The Nation (1945-50). Senior editor Ramparts (1966). Founding editor of Scanlan’s Magazine (1970). Advisory editor Chicago Review (1973-79). Publications include Mark Twain: An American Prophet (1970), Mark Twain and the Three R's: Race, Religon, Revolution and Related Matters (editor, 1973).

Gerber, John Christian (January 31, 1908, New Waterford, Ohio -- June 26, 2003, Iowa City, Iowa). University of Chicago doctorate (1941). Professional career at University of Iowa (1945-76), State University of New York in Albany (1976-81). Publications include The Adventures of Tom Sawyer; Tom Sawyer Abroad : Tom Sawyer, Detective (coeditor with Paul Baender and Terry Firkins, 1980).

Gibson, William Merriam (Wilmette, Illinois, January 16, 1912 -- January 22, 1987, Madison, Wisconsin). University of Chicago doctorate (1940). Professional career at University of Chicago, Williams College, New York University, University of Wisconsin at Madison. Publications include Mark Twain-Howells Letters (coeditor with Henry Nash Smith, 1960), Mark Twain's Mysterious Stranger Manuscripts (1969), The Art of Mark Twain (1976).

Gillis, William R. (August 14, 1840, Wyatt, Mississippi -- August 19, 1929, Jackass Hill, Tuttletown, California). Calilfornia gold miner, brother of Steve and William Gillis. Spent time with Mark Twain in Tuolumne County. Published Memories of Mark Twain and Steve Gillis (1924), reissued as Goldrush Days with Mark Twain (1930, 1969, 1970).

Grant, William Douglas Beattie (1921 -- February 1, 1969, Singapore). University professor, author and editor. Professional career at University College, Toronto (1949-60), University of Leeds. Publications include Mark Twain (1962), Afloat and Ashore with Mark Twain (1965).

Griffith, Frank Clark (March 27, 1925, Missouri -- July 6, 2001, Eugene, Oregon). State University of Iowa doctorate (1952). Professional career at Harvard (1952-55), Iowa University (1955-70), University of Oregon (1970-89). Publications include Achilles and the Tortoise: Mark Twain's Fictions (1998).

Grimm, Clyde LeRoy (December 6, 1929, Cook County, Illinois--May 22, 1978, Travis County, Texas.) University of Illinois doctorate (1963). Professional career at University of Illinois, Texas Tech University, Sam Houston State University, Southwest Texas State University. Contributor to Mark Twain's Humor: Critical Essays (David E. E. Sloane editor, 1993).

Hagood, James Hurley (August 25, 1912, Pike County, Missouri -- November 16, 2002, Hannibal, Missouri). William Jewell College graduate. Professional career with Boy Scouts of America (1935-74). Hannibal, Missouri historian. Publications include The Story of Hannibal (coauthor with Roberta Roland Hagood, 1976), Hannibal, Too (coauthor with Roberta Roland Hagood, 1986), Hannibal: Mark Twain's Town (coauthor with Roberta Roland Hagood, 1987), Hannibal Yesterdays (coauthor with Roberta Roland Hagood, 1992), Hannibal Heritage (coauthor with Roberta Roland Hagood and Dave Thomson, 2003).

Harnsberger, Caroline Thomas (April 12, 1902, Columbus, Ohio -- June 29, 1991, Columbus, Ohio). Studied at New York Institute of Music and Paris Conservatory. Violinist, author and friend of Clara Clemens. Publications include Mark Twain at Your Fingertips (1948), Mark Twain's Views of Religion (1961), Mark Twain: Family Man (1960), Everyone's Mark Twain (1972), Mark Twain on Horseback (1978), Mark Twain Loved Cats (1981), Mark Twain's Clara (1982), Mark Twain and Birds (1984).

Haweis, Hugh Reginald (April 3, 1838, Egham, Surrey, England -- January 29, 1901, London, England). Graduate Trinity College, Cambridge, England (1860). Cleric, author, world-wide lecturer. Professional career as incumbent at St. James, Marylebone, London. Publications include American Humorists (1883).

Hemminghaus, Edgar Hugo Julius (January 20, 1900, Ohio -- February 14, 1974, Dade County, Florida). Columbia University doctorate (1939). Publications include Mark Twain in Germany (1939, 1966).

Henderson, Archibald (June 17, 1877, Salisbury, North Carolina -- Dec. 6, 1963, Chapel Hill, North Carolina). University of North Carolina doctorate (1908). University of Chicago doctorate (1915). Professional career at University of North Carolina (1899-1948). Publications include Mark Twain (1911).

Hill, Hamlin Lewis (November 7, 1931, Houston, Texas -- July 16, 2002, Los Alamos, New Mexico). University of Chicago doctorate (1959). Professional career at University of New Mexico (1959-61, 63-68, 75-86), University of Wyoming (1961-63), University of Chicago (1968-75), Texas A&M University (1986-96). Publications include Mark Twain and Elisha Bliss (1964), Mark Twain's Letters to His Publishers, 1867-1894 (editor, 1967), Mark Twain: God's Fool (1973).

Honce, Charles Ellsworth (Noember 18, 1895, Keokuk, Iowa -- August 29, 1975, New York, New York). Keokuk high school graduate. Editor and bibliophile. Professional career with Associated Press (1919 - 1953). Publications include The Adventures of Thomas Jefferson Snodgrass (editor, 1928).

Hornberger, Theodore R. (January 13, 1906, Michigan -- March 14, 1975, Minneapolis, Minnesota). University of Michigan doctorate. Professional career at University of Michigan (1928-1937), University of Minnesota, University of Texas, University of Pennsylvania. Publications include Mark Twain's Letters to Will Bowen (editor, 1941).

Howard, Goldena Roland (April 17, 1914, Hannibal, Missouri -- December 15, 2000, Hannibal, Missouri). Columbia College graduate. Professional career at State Historical Society of Missouri in Columbia. Publications include The Mark Twain Book (coauther with husband Oliver Nelson Howard, 1985).

Howard, Joan (pseudonym). See Prud'hommeaux, Patricia Whyte Gordon

Howard, Oliver Nelson (January 6, 1915, Woodland, Missouri -- February 14, 1992, Hannibal, Missouri). Publications include The Mark Twain Book (coauther with wife Goldena Roland Howard, 1985).

Howell, John (June 13, 1874, Healdsburg, California -- April 16, 1956, Berkeley, California). University of California at Berkeley graduate (1896). Rare book dealer and publisher. Publications include Sketches of the Sixties by Bret Harte and Mark Twain (1927).

Howells, William Dean (March 1, 1837, Martin's Ferry, Ohio - May 11, 1920, New York, New York). Self educated. Novelist, critic, editor and intimate friend of Mark Twain. Editor for Atlantic Monthly and Harper's Magazine. Yale honorary doctorate (1901). Publications include My Mark Twain (1910).

Jerome, Robert D. (August 13, 1919, New York -- September 26, 1999, Elmira, New York). Elmira, New York businessman. Publications include Mark Twain in Elmira (coauthor with Herbert A. Wisbey, 1977).

Johnson, Merle de Vore (November 24, 1874, Oregon City, Oregon -- September 1, 1935, New York, New York) Stanford University graduate. Bibliographer, rare-book dealer, professional illustrator and cartoonist. Staff cartoonist Puck magazine (1914-17). Publications include A Bibliography of the Works of Mark Twain (1910, revised 1935), Queen Victoria's Jubilee (publisher, 1910), Mark Twain: Able Yachtsman (editor, 1920), Abroad with Mark Twain and Eugene Field (contributor with Henry W. Fischer, 1922), More Maxims of Mark (editor and publisher, 1927).

Kane, Harnett Thomas (November 8, 1910, New Orleans, Louisiana -- September 4, 1984, Gretna, Louisiana) Tulane University graduate (1931). Journalist and author. Publications include Young Mark Twain and the Mississippi (1966, 1987).

Kaplan, Justin Daniel (September 5, 1925, Manhattan, New York -- March 2, 2014, Cambridge, Massachusetts) Harvard graduate (1944). Biographer and editor. Publications include Pulitzer prize winner Mr. Clemens and Mark Twain (1966), Mark Twain and His World (1974), Lincoln Steffens: A Biography (1974), Walt Whitman: A Life (1980), Bartlett's Familiar Quotations (editor 1992, 2002), When the Astors Owned New York: Blue Bloods and Grand Hotels in the Gilded Age (2006).

Karanovich, Nick (February 23, 1938, Clinton, Indiana -- January 11, 2003, Fort Wayne, Indiana). Graduate Indiana University. St. Francis College master's degree. Professional career in Fort Wayne, Indiana school system. Mark Twain collector whose acquistions were catalogued in Sotheby's: The Mark Twain Collection (June 19, 2003). Publications include Overland with Mark Twain: James B. Pond's Photographs and Journal of the North American Lecture Tour of 1895 (coeditor with Alan Gribben, 1992).

Katz, Janet. See Janet Smith.

Kiskis, Michael ( July 4, 1954, Amsterdam, New York -- May 8, 2011, Binghamton, New York). State University of New York doctorate. Professional career at Elmira College (1993-2011). Publications include Mark Twain's Own Autobiography: Chapters from the North American Review (editor, 1990, 2010), Constructing Mark Twain: New Directions in Scholarship (coeditor with Laura Skandera-Trombley, 2001).

Krumpelmann, John Theodore (August 8, 1892, New Orleans, Louisiana -- June 12, 1986, Baton Rouge, Louisiana). Harvard doctorate (1924). Professional career Louisiana State University (1938-1962). Publications include Mark Twain and the German Language (1953).

Lauber, John Francis (June 17, 1925, Montana -- June 21, 2004, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada). University of Washington doctorate. Publications include The Making of Mark Twain: A Biography (1985), The Inventions of Mark Twain (1990).

Lawton, Mary (July 21, 1869, Ware, Massachusetts -- January 21, 1945, Orangeburg, New York). American Academy of Dramatic Arts. Actress and author. Publications include A Lifetime with Mark Twain: The Memories of Katy Leary (1925), Schumann-Heink, the Last of the Titans (1928), The Paderewski Memoirs (1938).

Leary, Lewis Gaston (April 18, 1906, Blauvelt, New York -- May 3, 1990, Chapel Hill, North Carolina). Columbia University doctorate. Professional career at Columbia University (1952-1968), University of North Carolina (1968-1976). Publications include Mark Twain (1960), Mark Twain's Letters to Mary (editor, 1961), A Casebook on Mark Twain's Wound (editor, 1962), Mark Twain's Correspondence with Henry Huttleston Rogers, 1893-1909 (editor, 1969), Southern Excursions; Essays on Mark Twain and Others (editor, 1971).

Legman, Gershon (November 2, 1917, Scranton, Pennsylvania -- February 23, 1999, Opio, France). Attended Scranton Central High School; self educated. Author, bibliographer and anthologist of erotic humor. Publications include The Mammoth Cod (editor, 1976).

Leisy, Ernest Erwin (December 22, 1887, Moundridge, Kansas -- March 8, 1968, Dallas, Texas). University of Illinois doctorate (1923). Professional career at Southern Methodist University (1927-1957). Publications include The Letters of Quintus Curtius Snodgrass (editor, 1946).

Lewis, Oscar Joseph (May 5, 1893, San Francisco, California -- July 11, 1992, San Francisco California). Attended University of California at Berkeley (1912). Author and historian. Secretary for Book Club of California (1921-1946). Publications include The Origin of The Celebrated Jumping frog of Calaveras County (1931).

Long, Eugene Hudson (November 4, 1908, Waco, Texas -- August 29, 1990, Waco, Texas). University of Pennsylvania doctorate (1942). Professional career at Baylor University (1949-76). Publications include Mark Twain Handbook (1958, revised 1985 with coauthor J. R. LeMaster).

Lorch, Fredrick William (October 29, 1893, Elberfeld, Wuppertal, Germany, 1893 -- January 16, 1967, Sherman, Texas). University of Iowa doctorate. Professional career at Iowa State University (1921-64), Austin College in Sherman, Texas (1964-67). Publications include The Trouble Begins at Eight: Mark Twain's Lecture Tours (1969).

Lynn, Kenneth Schuyler ( June 17, 1923, Cleveland, Ohio -- June 24, 2001, New York, New York). Harvard doctorate (1954). Professional career at Harvard (1954-68), Federal City College in Washington, D. C.(1968), John Hopkins University (1969-89). Publications include Mark Twain and Southwestern Humor (1959, 1972), Hemingway: The Life and the Work (1987), Charlie Chaplin and His Times (1997).

Mack, Effie Mona (October 1888, Kansas -- February 1969, Reno, Nevada). University of California doctorate (1930). Professional career at University of Nevada. Publications include Mark Twain in Nevada (1947).

Mason, Miriam Evangeline (January 23, 1897, Goshen, Indiana -- February 20, 1973, Batesville, Indiana). Attended Indiana University (1919). Married to M. M. Swain (1924). Educator, magazine editor, children's author. Publications include Mark Twain: Boy of Old Missouri (1942).

Masters, Edgar Lee (August 23, 1868, Garnett, Kansas -- March 5, 1950, Melrose Park, Pennsylvania). Self-educated lawyer, author and poet. Admitted to Illinois bar and established law practice (1893). Law partnership with Clarence Darrow (1903-08). Most noted for Spoon River Anthology (1915) a series of poems about his boyhood in Illinois. Other publications include Mark Twain: A Portrait (1938).

Matthews, James Brander (February 21, 1852, New Orleans, Louisiana -- March 31, 1929, New York, New York). Columbia Law School graduate (1883). Teacher, literary critic and author. Professional career Columbia University (1892-1924). Wrote the introductory essay to the American Publishing Company's 1899 uniform edition of Mark Twains works. Publications include An Introduction to the Study of American Literature (1896, 1911, 1918).

McCall, Edith S. (September 5, 1911 - October 16, 2002, Albuquerque, New Mexico). Graduate University of Wisconsin (1930). Educator and author specializing in novels for children with learning disabilities. Publications include Pioneers on Early Waterways: Davy Crockett to Mark Twain (1961).

McKeithan, Daniel Morley (November 9, 1902, Florence, South Carolina -- December 9, 1985, Austin, Texas). University of Texas doctorate (1935). Professional career at University of Texas (1965-1973). Publications include Traveling with the Innocents Abroad: Mark Twain's Original Reports from Europe and the Holy Land (editor, 1958), Court Trials in Mark Twain and Other Essays (editor, 1958).

McNeer, May Yonge (February 26, 1902, Tampa, Florida -- July 11, 1994, Reston, Virginia) Columbia School of Journalism graduate (1926). Author of children's books. Married Lynd Ward in 1926. Ward illustrated many of her books including America's Mark Twain (1962).

Meine, Franklin Julius (May 18, 1896, Chicago, Illinois -- December 28, 1968, Washington, D.C.) University of Chicago graduate (1917). Author, editor, folklorist, Mark Twain collector. Publications include Tall Tales of the Southwest (1930), Mike Fink (coauthor with Walter Blair, 1933), Mark Twain's [date 1601] Conversation as it was by the Social Fireside in the Time of the Tudors (editor, 1938).

Meltzer, Milton (May 18, 1915, Worcester, Massachusetts -- September 19, 2009, Manhattan, New York). Attended Columbia University (1932-36) but did not graduate. Prolific author and self-trained historian. Received American Library Association’s Laura Ingalls Wilder Medal for his contribution to children’s literature (2001). Adjunct professor at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. Publications include Mark Twain Himself (1960, 1993).

Miers, Earl Schenck (May 27, 1910, Brooklyn, New York -- November 17, 1972). American historian. Honorary degrees from Lincoln College and Rutgers University. Publications include Mark Twain on the Mississippi (1957).

Nagawara, Makoto (November 7, 1927, Hiroshima, Japan -- May 23, 2013, Kyoto, Japan). Kyoto University MA (1953). First President of the Japan Mark Twain Society (1997-2000). Professional career at Ritsumeikan University (1954-1993), Tachibana University (1993-1998). Prolific contributor to both Japanese and American journals on Mark Twain. Publications in Japanese language include Reading Mark Twain (1992), Reading is Fun: Twain, Dickinson and Hemingway (2004), Autobiography of Mark Twain, Volume 1 (co-translator with Ryo Waguri, et al., 2013).

Neider, Charles (January 18, 1915, Odessa, Russia -- July 4, 2001, Princeton, New Jersey). City University of New York graduate. Anthologizer, editor, author. Publications he edited include The Complete Short Stories of Mark Twain (1957), The Autobiography of Mark Twain (1959), The Complete Humorous Sketches and Tales of Mark Twain (1961), Mark Twain: Life As I Find It (1961), The Travels of Mark Twain (1961), Complete Essays of Mark Twain (1963), The Adventures of Colonel Sellers (1965), The Complete Travel Books of Mark Twain (1966), Mark Twain (1967), The Comic Mark Twain Reader (1977), The Selected Letters of Mark Twain (1972), A Tramp Abroad (1977), Plymouth Rock and the Pilgrims and Other Salutary Platform Opinions (1984), Papa: An Intimate Biography of Mark Twain by Susy Clemens (1985), Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1985), Mark Twain at His Best: A Comprehensive Sampler (1986), The Outrageous Mark Twain (1987)

North, Thomas Sterling (Edgerton, Wisconsin, November 4, 1906 -- Morristown, New Jersey, December 22, 1974). Attended University of Chicago (1925-28) but left prior to graduation. Author and journalist. Professional career at Chicago Daily News (1929-43), New York Post (1943-49), New YorkWorld Telegram & Sun (1949-56). Founder and general editor of North Star Books (1957-74). Publications include Mark Twain and the River (1961).

Paine, Albert Bigelow (July 10, 1861, New Bedford, Massachusetts -- April 9, 1937, New Smyrna, Florida). Limited formal schooling. Magazine editor. Clemens's official biographer, literary executor, and first editor of the Mark Twain Papers. Publications include: Mark Twain: A Biography (1912), The Boy's Life of Mark Twain (1916), What Is Man? and Other Essays (editor, 1917), Mark Twain's Letters (1917), Mark Twain's Speeches (editor, 1917), A Short Life of Mark Twain (1920), The Mysterious Stranger and Other Stories (editor, 1922), Europe and Elsewhere (editor, 1923), Mark Twain's Autobiography (1934), Mark Twain's Notebook (editor, 1935).

Petersen, Svend (March 13, 1911, Denmark -- January 18, 1992, Seminole, Florida). Political researcher and analyst. Publications include Mark Twain and the Government (editor, 1960).

Petersen, William John (January 30, 1901, Dubuque, Iowa -- February 2, 1989, Dubuque, Iowa). University of Iowa doctorate (1930). Historian of steamboat travel on the Mississippi River. Credited with recovering Mark Twain's steamboat pilot license from old archives in St. Louis, Missouri (1928). Professional career University of Iowa (1930-68), Superintendent of State Historical Society of Iowa (1947-1972). Publications include Steamboating on the Upper Mississippi (1937, 1968).

Pettit, Arthur Gordon (May 20, 1938, San Diego, California -- June 3, 1977, Colorado Springs, Colorado). University of California at Berkeley doctorate (1970). Professional career at Colorado College (1968-1977). Publications include Mark Twain and the South (1974).

Pond, James Burton (June 11, 1838, Cuba, New York -- June 21, 1903, Jersey City, New Jersey). Limited formal schooling. Journeyman printer (1856). Began professional career as a lecture manager with James Redpath's Lyceum Bureau (1874). Managed Mark Twain's lecture tour with George Washington Cable (1884-85) and Mark Twain's lecture tour between New York and British Columbia (1895). Publications include Eccentricites of Genius (1900).

Proudfit, Isabel Boyd (April 16, 1898, Evanston, Illinois -- May 12, 1984, New Britain, Connecticut). Columbia University master's degree.(1958). Journalist and children's author. Publications include River-Boy: The Story of Mark Twain (1940).

Prud'hommeaux, Patricia Whyte Gordon (May 24, 1904, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada -- May 5, 1974, Winter Harbor, Maine). May have attended University of Washington studying journalism. Journalist and author. Professional career with newspapers in San Francisco and New York City. Married writer Rene M. Prud'hommeaux, (May 9, 1913, Alexandria, Egypt -- March 26, 1993, Gouldsboro, Maine). After World War II wrote under the pseudonym of Joan Howard. Publications include The Story of Mark Twain (1953).

Quick, Dorothy Gertrude (Brooklyn, New York, September 1, 1896 -- March 15, 1962, New York, New York). Educated in Europe. Author and poet. Publications include Enchantment: A Little Girl's Friendship with Mark Twain (1961). The book was the basis for the television film Mark Twain and Me (1991).

Ramsay, Robert Lee (December 14, 1880, Sumter, South Carolina -- December 14, 1953, Columbia, Missouri). John Hopkins University doctorate (1905). Professional career at University of Missouri (1907-53). Founding member of the American Name Society (1951). Publications include A Mark Twain Lexicon (coauthor with Frances Guthrie Emberson, 1963).

Read, Opie P. (December 22, 1852, Nashville Tennessee -- November 2, 1939, Chicago Illinois). Attended classes at Neophogen College in Tennessee while working as a printer on the college newspaper. Journalist, author and humorist. Founded the humor magazine The Arkansas Traveler (1882). Active lecturer and Chautauqua performer. Appeared in the 1920 silent film Birthright. Publications include Mark Twain and I (1940).

Rodney, Robert Morris (August 21, 1911, Indiana -- December 28, 2001, Simsbury, Connecticut). University of Wisconsin doctorate (1945). Professional career at Eastern Montana State College (1967-77). Publications include The Art, Humor, and Humanity of Mark Twain (coeditor with Minnie May Brashear, 1959), The Birds and Beasts of Mark Twain (coeditor with Minnie May Brashear, 1966), Mark Twain International : A Bibliography and Interpretation of His Worldwide Popularity (1982), Mark Twain Overseas: A Biographical Account of His Voyages, Travels, and Reception in Foreign Lands, 1866-1910 (1993).

Rogers, Franklin Robert (July 25, 1921, New York, New York -- December 3, 2011, San Jose, California). University of California at Berkeley doctorate (1958). Professional career at San Jose State (1963-1986). Publications include Simon Wheeler, Detective (editor, 1963), Mark Twain's Satires and Burlesques (editor, 1967), Roughing It (editor, 1972).

Salsbury, Edith Frances Colgate (August 14, 1907, Bedford, New York -- September 26, 1971, Hartford, Connecticut). Graduate of Smith College and the Americaine des Beaux Arts, Fountainbleau, France (1931). Artist and author. Trustee of the Mark Twain Memorial in Hartford. Publications include Susy and Mark Twain: Family Dialogues (1965).

Sanborn, Margaret Angela Ryder (December 7, 1914, Alameda, California -- September 18, 2004, Mill Valley, California). Attended College of Marin (1932-34) and California School of Fine Arts, San Francisco (1934-36). Author and daughter of California journalist David Warren Ryder. Publications include Mark Twain: The Bachelor Years (1990).

Schmitter, Dean Morgan (June 14, 1917, Rubio, Iowa -- October 9, 2002, Closter, New Jersey). Columbia University doctorate (1955). Professional career at Columbia University (1947-1986). Publications include Mark Twain: A Collection of Criticism (editor, 1974).

Scott, Arthur Lincoln ( May 31, 1914, Long Island, New York -- September 26, 1998). University of Michigan doctorate (1948). Teacher, singer, world traveler. Taught at University of Illinois at Urbana until 1970. Publications include Mark Twain: Selected Criticism, (editor, 1955, 1967), On the Poetry of Mark Twain (editor, 1966), Mark Twain at Large (1969).

Simpson, Claude M. (July 29, 1910, Kansas City, Missouri -- April 5, 1976, Pasadena, California). Harvard doctorate (1936). Professional career at East Carolina College (1935-1936), University of Wisconsin (1936-1939), Harvard (1939-1942), Ohio State University (1947-1964), Stanford University 1964-1973). Publications include Twentieth Century Interpretations of the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (editor, 1968).

Smith, Janet (August 15, 1912, Michigan -- March 1, 1994, New York). Also known as Janet Katz, Mrs. Nathan Katz. Freelance writer and lifetme student of Mark Twain. Publications include Mark Twain on the Damned Human Race (editor, 1962), Mark Twain on Man and Beast (editor, 1972).

Smith, Henry Nash (September 29, 1906, Dallas, Texas -- May 30, 1986, Elko, Nevada). Harvard doctorate.(1940). Editor of the Mark Twain Papers (1953-64, 1979). Publications include Mark Twain of the Enterprise (coeditor with Frederick Anderson, 1957), Mark Twain-Howells Letters (coeditor with William M. Gibson, 1960), Mark Twain: The Development of a Writer (1962), Mark Twain: A Collection of Critical Essays (editor, 1963), Mark Twain's Fable of Progress (editor, 1964).

Somerville, Edith Anna Oenone (May 2, 1858, island of Corfu -- October 8, 1949, Castletownshend, Cork, Ireland). Attended Royal Westminster School of Art, London; honorary doctorate Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland (1932). Irish novelist and author. Publications include Mark Twain Birthday Book (editor, 1885).

Stahl, John Daniel (July 3, 1952 -- July 15, 2010, Blacksburg, Virginia). University of Connecticut doctorate (1982). Professional career at Virginia Tech (1982-2010). Publications include Mark Twain, Culture and Gender: Envisioning America through Europe (1994).

Stone, Albert E., Jr. (January 1, 1924, New London, Connecticut -- January 13, 2012). Yale doctorate (1957). Professional career at Yale (1955-62), Emory (1962-77), University of Iowa (1977-91). Publications include The Innocent Eye: Childhood in Mark Twain's Imagination (1961).

Strong, Leah A. (March 14, 1922, Buffalo, New York -- August 27, 2006, Sarasota, Florida). Syracuse University doctorate (1953). Professional career at Cedar Crest College at Allentown, Pennsylvania (1953-61), Wesleyan College at Macon, Georgia (1961-87). Publications include Joseph Hopkins Twitchell: Mark Twain's Friend and Pastor (1966).

Teller, Charlotte (March 3, 1876, Louisville, Kentucky -- December 30, 1953, Versaille, France). Graduate University of Chicago (1899). Novelist who developed a friendship with Mark Twain. Publications include S.L.C. to C.T. (editor, 1925).

Tenney, Thomas Asa (June 20, 1931, New York City, New York -- February 1, 2012, Charleston, South Carolina). University of Pennsylvania doctorate (1971). Cyril Clemens's successor as editor of the Mark Twain Journal (1983). Publications include Mark Twain: A Reference Guide (1977), Satire or Evasion?: Black Perspectives on Huckleberry Finn (coeditor with James S. Leonard and Thadious M. Davis, 1992).

Todd, William Burton (April 11, 1919, Chester, Pennsylvania -- August 27, 2011, Austin, Texas). University of Chicago doctorate (1949). Bibliographer. Professional career at Salem College, Harvard, University of Texas. Served on editorial board of the Iowa-California editions of Works of Mark Twain. Publications include Tauchnitz International Editions in English, 1841-1955 (1988).

Tuckey, John Sutton (July 27, 1921, Washington, D.C. -- Crown Point, Indiana, September 4, 1987). Notre Dame doctorate (1953). Professional career at Purdue University at Calumet (1953-87). Publications include Mark Twain and Little Satan (1963), Mark Twain's "The Mysterious Stranger" and the Critics (1968), Which Was the Dream? and Other Symbolic Writings of the Later Years (editor, 1967), Fables of Man (editor, 1982), No. 44, The Mysterious Stranger (editor, 1982).

Turner, Henry Arlin (November 25, 1909, Hopkins, Texas -- April 24, 1980, Austin, Texas). University of Texas doctorate (1934). Professional career at University of Texas (1934-36), Louisiana State University (1936-53), Duke University (1953-78). Publications include Mark Twain [and] G. W. Cable: The Record of a Literary Friendship (1960).

Valentine-Fonorow, Edith "Billie" (September 18, 1924 -- September 4, 2008, Tuscson, Arizona). Publications include Was It Heaven or Hell?: Triumphs and Torments of Mark Twain (1994).

Varble, Rachel M. (February 3, 1893, Kentucky -- August 14, 1976, Kenton, Kentucky). Author. Publications include Jane Clemens: The Story of Mark Twain's Mother (1964).

Walker, Franklin Dickerson (November 13, 1900, Republic, Michigan -- December 29, 1978, Oakland, California). Rhodes Scholar (1921-23). University of California at Berkeley doctorate (1932). Professional career at San Diego State College (1926-40), University of Oregon (1940-46). Publications include Washoe Giant in San Francisco (editor, 1938, 1973, 1976, 1977), San Francisco's Literary Frontier (1939, 1969), Mark Twain's Travels with Mr. Brown (coeditor with George Ezra Dane, 1940), Irreverent Pilgrims: Melville, Browne and Mark Twain in the Holy Land (1974).

Wallace, Elizabeth (May 5, 1865, Bogota, Columbia -- April 10, 1960, Hennepin, Minnesota). Wellesley graduate (1886). Educator and author. Professional career University of Chicago (1892-1927), where she became the first woman to attain rank of full professor in 1923. Publications include Mark Twain and the Happy Island (1914), The Unending Journey (1952).

Wagenknecht, Edward (March 28, 1900, Chicago, Illinois -- May 24, 2004, St. Alban's, Vermont). University of Washington doctorate (1932). Professional career at University of Washington (1925-43), Illinois Institute of Technology (1943-47), Boston University (1947-65). Publications include Mark Twain: The Man and His Work (1935, revised 1961 and 1967).

Webster, Samuel Charles (July 8, 1884, New York, New York -- March 24, 1962, Wilmington, Delaware). Son of Mark Twain's neice Annie Moffett and Charles Luther Webster who was head of Mark Twain's publishing company (1884-88). Publications include Mark Twain, Business Man (1946).

Wecter, Dixon (January 12, 1906, Houston, Texas -- June 24, 1950, Sacramento, California). Yale doctorate (1936). Educator and social historian. Succeeded Bernard DeVoto as editor of the Mark Twain Papers (1946). Professional career at University of Denver, University of Colorado, University of California at Los Angeles, University of Chicago, University of California at Berkeley. Publications include Mark Twain's Letters to Mrs. Fairbanks (editor, 1949), The Love Letters of Mark Twain (editor 1950), Sam Clemens of Hannibal (1952), Report from Paradise (1952).

Wiggins, Robert Alonzo (February 8, 1921, Georgia -- September 23, 1989, Sacramento, California). University of California at Berkeley doctorate (1953). Professional career at University of California, Davis (1950-89). Publications include Mark Twain: Jackleg Novelist (1964).

Wilson, James D. (July 27, 1946, Memphis, Tennessee -- November 16, 1996, Lafayette, Louisiana). Louisiana State University doctorate (1972). Professional career at Georgia State University (1972-86), University of Southwestern Louisiana (1986-1996). Publications include A Reader's Guide to the Short Stories of Mark Twain (1987), The Mark Twain Encyclopedia (coeditor with J. R. LeMaster, 1993).

Wisbey, Herbert A., Jr. (April 20, 1919, Boston, Massachusetts -- March 17, 2000, Horseheads, New York). Columbia University doctorate (1951). Professional career at Elmira College (1965-86). Founding director of the Center for Mark Twain Studies at Quarry Farm (1983-86). Publications include Mark Twain in Elmira (coauthor with Robert D. Jerome, 1977).

Zall, Paul Maxwell (August 3, 1922, Lowell, Massachusetts -- December 16, 2009, South Pasadena, California). Harvard doctorate (1950). Professional career at California State University, Los Angeles (1957-1987). Publications include Mark Twain Laughing: Humorous Anecdotes by and about Samuel Clemens (editor, 1985).

Zwick, Jim (March 23, 1956 -- January 24, 2008, Syracuse, New York). Syracuse University Master of Arts in Comparative Politics and World History. American studies scholar and internet web designer. Publications include Mark Twain's Weapons of Satire (1992), Inuit Entertainers in the United States (2006), Confronting Imperialism: Essays on Mark Twain and the Anti-Imperialist League (2007).


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